Education

Why School Grades In Florida Are Full Of Controversy

An A was always the gold standard.  Every student knows that the better the grade, the greater the reward. Whether the reward is a gold star, a trophy or a scholarship, the way to earn that was always to get that A. A plus

It’s no different for schools.  Since 1999, schools have worked to measure student learning gains and to objectively measure teacher and school performance.  An A school brings recognition, prestige and financial gain.

But, measuring school accountability is more difficult than anyone thought it would be.  And, as recent legislative decisions show, may carry huge political consequences.

The Florida Board of Education voted to reinstate a “safety net” which will pad student test results and prevent any individual school’s grade from dropping more than one full letter. That move reduced the number of failing schools from 262 to 107.

In 2012, 53 schools received F grades.

The formula used to calculate school grades is complicated.  It measures students’ scores on standardized tests and their year-to-year learning gains.  Board members voted 4-3 in an emergency conference call with Education Commissioner Tony Bennett to reinstate the safety net.

It was a narrow victory.  Board member Kathleen Shanahan, former chief of staff to Jeb Bush who ushered in the school grading system, said that the system has become overcomplicated and is not “a statistically valid model anymore.”

“I don’t understand when it became acceptable to disguise and manipulate the truth simply because the truth is uncomfortable,” said Sally Bradshaw, another former Bush chief of staff.

The frequent changes in school grading formulas confuse parents and community members and undermine the system’s credibility.

school grades - flCredibility which is in even greater danger as emails obtained by the Associated Press suggest that Bennett may have adjusted the school grade formula that he helped establish in Indiana while he was in charge of schools there to benefit one school.

The emails show that he moved quickly to make changes to the school grading system to ensure that Christel House, a charter school run by Christel DeHaan – a major Republican donor, who also donated to Bennett’s campaign – would receive an A, instead of the C that it would have earned under the state’s original formula.

Bennett was quick to defend himself, saying that the adjustment “had nothing to do with politics.”

And it is also true that superintendents across the state of Florida asked Bennett and the Board of Education to reinstate the safety net for school grades, which still plummeted with a record number of F-rated schools, without taking into account high school grades, which won’t be released until later this year, because high schools grades are even more difficult to calculate because they include other variables, such as graduation rates and enrollment as well as success in Advanced Placement and dual enrollment courses.

School grades have gone down, despite the fact that students’ test scores have held steady and, in some instances, even improved, which only add to the confusion.  If student academic achievement is improving, many parents wonder why school grades are going down.

The answer is that Florida continues to raise the bar as it strives to better prepare students for college.  And, to complicate matters even more, the actual accountability formulas also continue becoming more and more complex. In the last 36 months alone, there have been over 36 changes.

And there are more changes on the horizon as Florida moves towards the new, more rigorous Common Core standards, born out of President Obama’s Race to the Top education initiatives.  Florida is one of the states that signed up to work and develop the new standards and the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC), the standardized test set to replace the FCAT.

However, in recent weeks, more and more states have decided not to sign on to the PARCC.  And, Florida is on the fence.  Just last week Florida Senate President Don Gaetz and House Speaker Will Weatherford sent Bennett a letter urging the state to abandon the PARCC, as Indiana and several other states have.

They cite concerns including the amount of time students will test and the cost of administering and grading the exams, which replace paper-pencil bubble in the answer tests with much more stringent exams where students, as young as third grade, are asked to write essays analyzing and synthesizing information.  These tests cannot be graded by computer, also increasing their cost.

Although there are plenty of democrats as well as parent and teacher groups who oppose implementing new common core standards, most of the states who have decided to opt out of the PARCC are republican states with republican governors.

Whether Florida does decide to join the PARCC or work to develop another test, it is unlikely that the formulas used to calculate success – and the teacher merit pay and school funding that depend on that success – will become any more straightforward or any less political.

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Posted on WLRN, July 2013: http://bit.ly/1oXyBcL

 

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Is there a ‘Humanities Crisis’?

“Why do we have to learn this?” Every teacher has heard a student ask this question.  It is often followed with, “When will I ever use this?”

Perhaps anyone who was ever a student – i.e. all of us – has either uttered or thought the very same thing.  And they are indeed valid questions.  After all, when will the average person need to calculate the square root of an imaginary number?  Or determine how many moles of oxide are in a substance? Or explain the difference between Aristotelian and Shakespearean tragedies?

In all honesty, the answer is probably never.

literature

Fewer college students are majoring in humanities. But, that doesn’t necessarily mean that they are better prepared for the workforce.

This is why when the American Academy of Arts & Sciences released a new study indicating that the number of college students majoring in humanities was plummeting, reactions were mixed.

Some fear that the humanities might disappear from college campuses. And that it will lead to less creativity. That without the exploration of the humanities, students won’t learn how to think creatively and critically, to reason, or to contemplate big abstract questions of love, knowledge, democracy.

“There is an atmosphere of crisis in the humanities,” said John Paul Russo, Chair of the Department of Classics at the University of Miami.

But not everyone is concerned. As Lee Siegal wrote in The Wall Street Journal, “Literature requires only that you be human. It does not have to be taught any more than dreaming has to be taught.”

And, as Russo points out, some of the concern “is warranted, and some not.  Yes, there has been a decline in majors over the past 25 years, and that goes back even further in time.”

But parents always worried when their children majored in the humanities.  What will you do with a philosophy major? Philosophize?  And English, what are you going to do with that?  So, it is not new that undergraduates are gravitating to, what they think, are more practical college majors.  And given the skyrocketing costs of higher education, it is understandable.

And while it is fair to say that it is not necessary to know Shakespeare to cure cancer, it is important to point out that we are not losing humanities majors to biochemistry and computer engineering.  The most popular undergraduate major in the United States – by far – are business related.  So, although quoting Cicero won’t prepare you to run a Fortune 500 company, neither will a semester spent perfecting Excel prepare a student to build relationships with clients, or to reason and think critically.

This change towards seemingly more practical college majors like business administration or business management, were not born on college campuses.

The truth is that the move away from the humanities coincides with the rise of high-stakes testing.  And, they will continue to suffer.

Under the Common Core State Standards, 70 percent of what seniors read in high school will be non-fiction and informational texts while only 30 percent will be dedicated to fiction.  Although that this is not intended to be the case in a student’s English class, but rather across all curricula, in the face of declining reading scores, the most likely outcome – what is actually happening in many high schools right now — is that teachers will have to sacrifice some of the time that they spend teaching classic literature.

They will spend less time asking literary and thematic questions, like what Shakespeare meant when he wrote that “life was but a walking shadow,” in order to make time to go over the Environmental Protection Agency’s Recommended Levels of Insulation and the California Invasive Plant Council’s Invasive Plant Inventory (both Common Core exemplar texts).

Undoubtedly, this trend contributes to the declining interest in undergraduate literature courses and humanities majors as a whole.  As reading become more of a chore, and reading courses – classes designed for students who need intensive remediation – are viewed as punishment, it is not a surprise that teenagers lose interest.

(See related WLRN article: more testing does not necessarily lead to smarter kids.)

It all comes down to how we, as a society, view education.  And what the role of college and universities should be.  Do we see colleges as institutions of higher learning where students explore different interests and learn math, science and – yes — humanities?  Or, are colleges and universities career training centers?  In the president’s discussion of Race to the Top, the Common Core’s concentration on College Readiness and the push to graduate more and more students in the field of Science and Technology, we have to be honest with our expectations.

And those expectations are not only affecting college campuses, but they undoubtedly affect the approach that schools and school districts take in educating high school, middle and even elementary school children.

Ironically, this approach has not led to better readers.  In fact, results from the National Center for Education Statistics’ analysis of fourth- and eighth-grade vocabulary scores from 2009 and 2011 reading comprehension exams found that even the highest-scoring students on average couldn’t perform above 67 percent.

Although kids are reading more – as evidenced by the explosion in young adult fiction – the complexity of what they read is dropping. Walk into any Barnes & Noble and you’ll find shelves and shelves of hugely popular novels and book series aimed at teenagers.

But research shows that as young readers get older, they do not read more classics or more complex books and teachers aren’t assigning difficult classics as much as they once did.

A recent study by Renaissance Learning, Inc. revealed that American high school students are reading books far below their reading level. A compilation of the top 40 books read by students in grades 9 through 12 showed that the average text’s reading level was 5.3 — barely above the fifth grade.  The most popular books, the three books in The Hunger Games series, were assessed to be at the fifth-grade level.

Interestingly, in 1989, before high-stakes testing, high school students were being assigned works by Sophocles, Shakespeare, Dickens, George Bernard Shaw, Emily Bronte and Edith Wharton.

Dana Gioia, the former chairman of The National Endowment for the Arts, commented that “both reading ability and the habit of regular reading have greatly declined among college graduates”; even the more educated individuals, whom one would expect to have resisted the trend, registered the steepest fall, and hence their “reading comprehension skills” have eroded.

To place the blame solely on testing is a mistake.  Surely there have been great strides in students’ academic gains; however, there is a trend and correlation that should not be ignored.

As Dr. Russo pointed out, “it is important to remember that the humanities help prepare the person not just for a specific field but for life itself; ideally, the humanities help expand our humanity, putting us in touch with people of different ages and backgrounds.”

So when a student asks, “Why do I need to know this?” I hope that we, as a society, respond that learning for the sake of learning is important.

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Originally published on wlrn.org in July 2013

Cursive is on Life Support

Every October, high school students across the country take the PSAT, or Practice SAT, a standardized test developed by College Board that provides high school students a chance to enter scholarship programs and gain access to college and career planning tools.

But, it wasn’t the algebraic equations that terrified the kids, it was the cursive.

Seriously.

cursive

Fancy curly cues beware: cursive writing is almost extinct; but, it’s not handwriting that we should worry about.

As the kids filled in their identifying information, they came to a section that asked them to copy a pledge promising not to cheat – in cursive – and then to sign their names.

“Miss, what do they mean by ‘sign your name’?” one student asked.

“You know, the way that you write your name on important documents, like contracts or checks.”

Questioning stare.  “Like, in cursive?”

“Yes.”

I have never seen so many stunned teenagers, paralyzed, gripping their pencils, gulping. It took one child a full five minutes to copy the roughly twenty-five words and sign his name.

“I just wrote it normally and then went back to connect the letters,” he later said.

This is not new.  A 2010 Miami-Dade County Public Schools report found that found that cursive instruction has been slowly declining nationwide since the 1970s.

In the high-tech world of high-stakes tests, educators are working to prepare students for the FCAT, End of Course Exams, AP and AICE exams, college admissions and a successful future in which computer and typing skills are essential; in a classroom where school grades and teacher pay depend on student test scores, and educators are asked to do more and more on leaner and leaner budgets, making the time to teach fancy curlicue letters just does not seem imperative.

And that trend will only continue as the Common Core standards, which do not require cursive instruction, continue to roll out.  “The Common Core State Standards allow communities and teachers to make decisions at the local level. . . so they can teach cursive if they think it’s what their students need,” said Kate Dando, a spokeswoman for the Council of Chief State School Officers, which promotes the Common Core.

But, not all of the kids were lost.  There was one who copied the statement in seconds, and then sat up straight, patiently waiting for his classmates to finish.  After the test I asked him if he learned to write in cursive in elementary school.

“No,” he said.  “My mom taught me because she thought it was important.”

And that is the true issue.  The dilemma is not truly whether the “art of cursive” writing is important.  The dilemma is the growing chasm between kids whose parents have the money, education, and time to enrich their children’s learning, and those that don’t.

Cursive isn’t the only victim of standardized testing.  Students no longer learn grammar.  The reigning educational philosophy of the last thirty years stressed the writing process, not the final product.  Researchers questioned the necessity of recognizing hanging participles or conjunctions.  In the career world, they argued, people would never have to identify those.  Furthermore, they contend, grammar is implicit in reading.  As kids read, they will pick up all of the grammar that they need.

Besides, why do teachers need to correct errors in obnoxious red ink when all word processing software contains grammar and spell-check programs?

That is, of course, when kids read — outside of school. When they have books in the home. When their parents read to them.  When there are computers in the home.  In other words, children who live in more affluent homes are more likely to learn outside of school, widening the achievement gap.

A Stanford University study finds that the achievement gaps begin as early as 18 months. By kindergarten, it can be a two-year gap. Poor kids — not to mention immigrants and children whose parents do not speak English — start so far behind when school begins that they never catch up.

It is true. College students are more likely to type out their notes on laptops and tablets than to write them with pen and paper.  Fewer people write checks every day, opting instead for credit cards and e-banking.

Elementary school students use calculators.  After all, in today’s technological world, when will they ever be far from a smartphone that can add, subtract, multiply and divide?

The difference is that some kids will learn.  Some of their parents and grandparents will teach them those intricacies and formalities that the school curriculum leaves out.  Some of them will fill in the gaps.  Some of them won’t.

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Note: Since this was originally published, Florida standards were amended to include cursive writing in elementary school.

Posted on StateImpact.org in February, 2014: http://stateimpact.npr.org/florida/2014/02/19/why-the-debate-over-cursive-is-about-more-than-penmanship/